Runtime: 30 minutes
Wojna domowa - Red Terror (Spain) - Netflix
The Red Terror in Spain (Spanish: Terror Rojo) is the name given by some historians to various acts of violence committed from 1936 until the end of the Spanish Civil War “by sections of nearly all the leftist groups”. News of the rightist military coup in 1936 unleashed a social revolutionary response, and no republican region escaped revolutionary and anticlerical violence, but it was minimal in the Basque Country. The violence consisted of the killing of tens of thousands of people (including 6,832 members of the Catholic clergy, the vast majority in the summer of 1936 in the wake of the military coup) as well as attacks on landowners, industrialists, and politicians as well as the desecration and burning of monasteries and churches. A process of political polarisation had characterised the Spanish Second Republic, and party divisions became increasingly embittered and questions of religious identity came to assume a major political significance. Electorally, the Church had identified itself with the right, which had set itself against social reform. The failed pronunciamiento of 1936 set loose a violent onslaught on those that revolutionaries in the Republican zone identified as enemies; “where the rebellion failed, for several months afterwards merely to be identified as a priest, a religious or simply a militant Christian or member of some apostolic or pious organization, was enough for a person to be executed without trial”. In recent years, the Catholic Church has beatified hundreds of the victims, 498 of them on 28 October 2007 in a spectacular ceremony, the largest single number of beatifications in its history. Some estimates of the Red Terror range from 38,000 to ~172,344 lives. Paul Preston, speaking in 2012 at the time of the publication of his book The Spanish Holocaust, put the figure at a little under 50,000. Historian Julio de la Cueva wrote that “despite the fact that the Church... suffer[ed] appalling persecution”, the events have so far met not only with “the embarrassing partiality of ecclesiastical scholars, but also with the embarrassed silence or attempts at justification of a large number of historians and memoirists”. Analysts such as Helen Graham have linked the Red and White Terrors, pointing out that it was the coup that allowed the culture of brutal violence to flourish: “its original act of violence was that it killed off the possibility of other forms of peaceful political evolution”. Others see the persecution and violence as predating the coup and found in what they see as a “radical and antidemocratic” anticlericalism of the Republic and its constitution, with the dissolution of the Jesuits in 1932, the nationalisation of virtually all church property in 1933, the prohibition of teaching religion in schools, the prohibition of teaching by clergy and the violent persecution beginning in 1934 in Asturias, with the murder of 37 priests, religious and seminarians and the burning of 58 churches.
Wojna domowa - 1936 Popular Front victory and aftermath - Netflix
In the 1936 elections, a new coalition of socialists (Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, PSOE), liberals (Republican Left and the Republican Union Party), Communists, and various regional nationalist groups won the extremely-tight election. The results gave 34 percent of the popular vote to the Popular Front and 33 percent to the incumbent government of the CEDA. This result, when coupled with the Socialists' refusal to participate in the new government, led to a general fear of revolution. The fear was worsened when Largo Caballero, hailed as “the Spanish Lenin” by Pravda, announced that the country was on the cusp of revolution.
Wojna domowa - References - Netflix