Series delving into film and newsreel company British Pathé's treasure trove of images, which documented almost every aspect of everyday life in Britain and around the world in the 20th century.
Runtime: 60 minutes
The Story of British Pathé - Gaumont Film Company - Netflix
The Gaumont Film Company (, French pronunciation: [ɡomɔ̃]; often shorted to Gaumont) is a French mini-major film studio founded by the engineer-turned-inventor Léon Gaumont (1864–1946), in 1895. It is the first and oldest film company in the world, founded before other studios such as Pathé (founded in 1896), Titanus (1904), Nordisk Film (1906), Universal and Paramount Pictures (both founded in 1912). The company headquarters are in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. Gaumont predominantly produces, co-produces, and distributes films, and in 2011, 95% of Gaumont's consolidated revenues came from the film division. The company is increasingly becoming a TV series producer with its new American subsidiary Gaumont International Television as well as its existing French production features. Gaumont is run by Nicolas Seydoux (President), Sidonie Dumas (General Director) and Christophe Riandee (Deputy General Director).
The Story of British Pathé - History - Netflix
Originally dealing in photographic apparatus, the company began producing short films in 1897 to promote its make of camera-projector. Léon Gaumont's secretary Alice Guy-Blaché became the motion picture industry’s first female director and she went on to become the Head of Production of the Gaumont film studio from 1897 to 1907. From 1905 to 1914, its Cité Elgé studios (from the normal French pronunciation of the founder's initials L-G) at La Villette, France, were the largest in the world. Gaumont began producing full-length feature films in 1908. The company manufactured its own equipment and mass-produced films until 1907, when Louis Feuillade became the artistic director of Gaumont. When World War I broke out, he was replaced by Léonce Perret, who continued his career in the United States a few years later. Gaumont opened foreign offices and acquired the theatre chain Gaumont British, which later notably produced several films directed by Alfred Hitchcock such as The 39 Steps (1935) and The Lady Vanishes (1938). Along with its competitor Pathé Frères, Gaumont dominated the motion-picture industry in Europe until the outbreak of World War I in 1914.
Following World War I, Gaumont suffered economic losses due to increased competition from American Hollywood productions. In 1925, the studio's output had decreased to only 3 films. In addition, Gaumont was unable to keep pace with the cost of technological changes (e.g., the advent of sound movies). Struck by mounting debts in the early 1930s and the effects of the Great Depression, Gaumont declared bankruptcy in 1935. In 1937, the studio ceased production and operated only as a theater and distribution company. The company was purchased by the French corporation Havas in 1938, renamed Société Nouvelle des Etablissements Gaumont and reopened its film production studio. During the later years of World War II, Gaumont was affected by the financial ruin of France's economy as well as the physical destruction of its facilities. The company ceased production until 1947. However, the global interest in French New Wave films in the 1950s, as well as the permissiveness within French films (e.g., nudity), allowed French productions to successfully compete against an American cinema that was still burdened by conservative moral codes. The period was to see the return to prominence of Gaumont Studios. In 1975, media tycoon and French old money heir multi-millionaire Nicolas Seydoux started managing Gaumont; he personally owned 60% of the shares and 70% of the votes.
On February 2, 2000, Philippe Binant, technical manager of Digital Cinema Project at Gaumont, realized the first digital cinema projection in Europe with the Texas Instruments prototype projector. From 1993 to early 2004, Gaumount and Disney made a partnership for producing films for theater distribution. In 2001, Gaumont spun off the cinema division into a joint-venture with Pathé since known as Les Cinémas Gaumont Pathé. Gaumont owned a 34% stake in the entity, which controls a large cinema network in France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. As of 2011, this stake was worth €214 million. In 2004, Gaumont continued its development with Pathé to set up another joint-venture, Gaumont-Pathé Archives. Gaumont owns 57.5% of this entity, which contains newsreels, documentaries, and silent movies from the 20th and 21st centuries. From early 2004 to 2007, the company had a partnership with Sony for producing films and for theater and DVD distribution worldwide. And for many years, Gaumont's home video division was a joint venture with Sony Pictures. Currently, Gaumont distributes its films through Paramount Home Media Distribution on video in France. At the end of 2007, Gaumont took over the French animation studio Alphanim for €25 million and renamed it Gaumont Alphanim. As of 2013, it is known as Gaumont Animation. On December 16, 2010, Gaumont acquired a 37.48% stake in the share capital of the Légende company and its subsidiaries for €6.6 million. Légende is a full-length film and television series production and distribution company managed by Alain Goldman. As of 2011, the Légende stake is worth €6.3 million. 2011 was also the year that Gaumont opened its Gaumont International Television division in Los Angeles, US. In 2011, Gaumont co-produced and distributed Intouchables became France's highest-grossing movie of all time. The international release of Intouchables was equally successful, trumping previous international blockbusters such as Harry Potter and Transporters in Germany. Intouchables is the highest-grossing foreign-language movie (any language other than English) beating the previous record of $275 million by the Japanese Spirited Away. The film was a major catalyst for Gaumont boosting fourth quarter 2011 cinema sales to €47.9 million, up 651% year on year. The film's success turned a half year 2011 loss to a record annual €26 million profit. Intouchables currently has a box-office of $361 million. In 2012, Gaumont acquired the production company Nouvelles Editions de Films (NEF) for €3.1 million. The company was previously run and created by cinema legend Louis Malle. As part of the acquisition, Gaumont now owns the entire Malle collection, including Ascenseur pour l'échafaud, Atlantic City, and Au revoir, les enfants. In February 2012, Gaumount restarted their Television division that was defunct for about ten years. On May 2, 2016 according to Deadline Hollywood, Gaumont teamed up with Lionsgate and seven other international companies to launch the Globalgate Entertainment consortium. Globalgate will produce and distribute local-language films in markets around the world. Lionsgate said Monday it has partnered with international entertainment executives Paul Presburger, William Pfeiffer and Clifford Werber to launch Globalgate. On March 1, 2017, Gaumont sold its 34% stake in Les Cinémas Gaumont Pathé to Pathé for $400 million to focus on production. In January 2018, it was announced that the company's first office in Cologne is scheduled for opening in July 2018. The office is set to focus on development and production of premiere drama programming, according to film producer and new manager Sabine de Mardt.
The Story of British Pathé - References - Netflix