Professor Jim Al-Khalili investigates the important concepts of energy and information.
Runtime: 60 minutes
Order and Disorder - Borderline personality disorder - Netflix
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions. There is frequent dangerous behavior and self-harm. People may also struggle with a feeling of emptiness and a fear of abandonment. Symptoms may be brought on by seemingly normal events. The behavior typically begins by early adulthood, and occurs across a variety of situations. Substance abuse, depression, and eating disorders are commonly associated with BPD. Approximately 10% of people affected die by suicide. BPD's causes are unclear, but seem to involve genetic, brain, environmental, and social factors. It occurs about five times more often in a person who has an affected close relative. Adverse life events also appear to play a role. The underlying mechanism appears to involve the frontolimbic network of neurons. BPD is recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as a personality disorder, along with nine other such disorders. Diagnosis is based on the symptoms while a medical exam may be done to rule out other problems. The condition must be differentiated from an identity problem or substance use disorders, among other possibilities. Borderline personality disorder is typically treated with therapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Another type, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) may reduce the risk of suicide. Therapy may occur one-on-one, or in a group. While medications do not cure BPD, they may be used to help with the associated symptoms. Some people require care in hospital. About 1.6% of people have BPD in a given year. Females are diagnosed about three times as often as males. It appears to become less common among older people. Up to half of people improve over a ten-year period. People affected typically use a high amount of healthcare resources. There is an ongoing debate about the naming of the disorder, especially the suitability of the word borderline. The disorder is often stigmatized in both the media and psychiatric field.
Order and Disorder - Mental healthcare providers - Netflix
People with BPD are considered to be among the most challenging groups of patients to work with in therapy, requiring a high level of skill and training in the psychiatrists, therapists and nurses involved in their treatment. A majority of psychiatric staff report finding individuals with BPD moderately to extremely difficult to work with and more difficult than other client groups. Efforts are ongoing to improve public and staff attitudes toward people with BPD. In psychoanalytic theory, the stigmatization among mental healthcare providers may be thought to reflect countertransference (when a therapist projects his or her own feelings on to a client). Thus, a diagnosis of BPD “often says more about the clinician's negative reaction to the patient than it does about the patient” and “explains away the breakdown in empathy between the therapist and the patient and becomes an institutional epithet in the guise of pseudoscientific jargon”. This inadvertent countertransference can give rise to inappropriate clinical responses, including excessive use of medication, inappropriate mothering, and punitive use of limit setting and interpretation. Some clients feel the diagnosis is helpful, allowing them to understand that they are not alone and to connect with others with BPD who have developed helpful coping mechanisms. However, others experience the term borderline personality disorder as a pejorative label rather than an informative diagnosis. They report concerns that their self-destructive behavior is incorrectly perceived as manipulative and that the stigma surrounding this disorder limits their access to healthcare. Indeed, mental health professionals frequently refuse to provide services to those who have received a BPD diagnosis.
Order and Disorder - References - Netflix