История серии Metal Gear - Netflix

Type: Variety

Languages: Russian

Status: Ended

Runtime: 40 minutes

Premier: 2012-09-21

История серии Metal Gear - Ilyushin Il-86 - Netflix

The Ilyushin Il-86 (Russian: Илью́шин Ил-86; NATO reporting name: Camber) is a short/medium-range wide-body jet airliner. It was the USSR's first wide-body and the world's second four-engined wide-body. Designed and tested by the Ilyushin design bureau in the 1970s, it was certified by the Soviet aircraft industry, manufactured and marketed by the USSR. The Il-86 was the penultimate Soviet-era airliner to be designed (preceding its sister model the Il-96, which first flew in 1988). Developed during the Leonid Brezhnev era, which was marked by stagnation in many sectors of Soviet industry, the Il-86 used engines more typical of the 1960s, spent a decade in development, and failed to enter service in time for the Moscow Olympics, as was originally intended. The type was used by Aeroflot and successor post-Soviet airlines and only three of the total 106 examples were exported. In service, it gained recognition as a safe and reliable model with no fatal incidents during three decades of passenger-carrying operations. At the beginning of 2012, only four Il-86s remained in service, all with the Russian Air Force.

История серии Metal Gear - Powerplant issue - Netflix

The main problem facing the Il-86 project was the lack of a suitable engine. It was never resolved. By the close of the 1960s, the USA and the UK had turbofans with bypass ratios of 4 or 5 to 1. The first Soviet large turbofan, the Lotarev D-18T, did not appear before the mid-1980s. The Soloviev D-30, originally intended for the Il-86, was the most advanced Soviet civil aeroengine. It had a bypass ratio of 2.4 to 1 and aerodynamic clamshell thrust reversers. It failed to attain the required thrust, however: “only after the lapse of three years that were spent on preparing the advanced development project did it become clear that these engines would not provide the necessary take-off performance.” The less-advanced Kuznetsov NK-8 series engine, adopted on March 26, 1975, had a bypass ratio of 1.15 to 1 and drag-inducing grilles over its cascade thrust reversers. Both these engines had high specific fuel consumptions and were noisy. Being ultimate developments of smaller engines, they could not offer growth to future Il-86s.

История серии Metal Gear - References - Netflix