Kevin McCloud returns with Grand Designs Abroad. This time the stakes are higher, the risks are multiplied, and the ambition - to build your dream home in the perfect location in Europe - is greater than ever before.
Runtime: 60 minutes
Grand Designs Abroad - Norman Hartnell - Netflix
Sir Norman Bishop Hartnell, KCVO (12 June 1901 – 8 June 1979) was a leading British fashion designer, best known for his work for the ladies of the Royal Family. Hartnell gained the Royal Warrant as Dressmaker to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother in 1940; and Royal Warrant as Dressmaker to Queen Elizabeth II in 1957.
Grand Designs Abroad - 1934–1940 - Netflix
By 1934 Hartnell's success had outgrown his premises and he moved over the road to a large Mayfair town house already provided with floors of work-rooms at the rear to Bruton Mews. The first floor salon was the height of modernity, like his clothes and the glass and mirror-lined Art Moderne space was designed by the innovative young architect Gerald Lacoste (1909–1983). The interiors of the large late 18th-century town house are now protected as one of the finest examples of art-moderne pre-war commercial design in the UK. The timeless quality of Lacoste's designs was the perfect background for each new season of Hartnell designs, created for aristocratic British women of all ages and worn by most of the famous theatre and film stars of their day, including Vivien Leigh, Gertrude Lawrence, Merle Oberon, Ann Todd, Evelyn Laye, Anna Neagle and trans-Atlantic stars such as Marlene Dietrich, Elizabeth Taylor and Linda Christian. At the same time, Hartnell moved into the new building, he acquired a week-end retreat, Lovel Dene, a Queen Anne cottage in Windsor Forest, Berkshire. This was extensively re-modelled for him by Lacoste. London life was based in The Tower House, Park Village West Regent's Park, also re-modelled and furnished with a fashionable mixture of Regency and modern furniture. In 1935 Hartnell received the momentous first royal commands, inaugurating four decades of his worldwide fame and success in providing clothes for the ladies of the British Royal Family. Lady Alice Montagu-Douglas-Scott, the future Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, a daughter of the Duke of Buccleuch, approached Hartnell to design her dress and those of her bridesmaids for her marriage to Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, third son of King George V. Two bridesmaids were Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret, daughters of the Duke and Duchess of York (the future King King George VI and his consort Elizabeth). Both George V and Queen Mary approved the designs, the latter also becoming a client. The future Queen Elizabeth, then a client of Madame Handley-Seymour, who had made her wedding dress in 1923, accompanied her daughters to the Hartnell salon to view the fittings and met the designer for the first time. Although Hartnell's designs for the new Duchess of Gloucester's wedding and her trousseau achieved worldwide publicity, the death of the bride's father and consequent period of mourning led to the cancellation of the large State Wedding at Westminster Abbey. The substitution of a small private ceremony in the chapel of Buckingham Palace prevented the full theatre of a royal occasion and Hartnell regretted that his work on the designs for the magnificent occasion was denied worldwide publicity. Vast crowds did see the newest member of the royal family drive off from Buckingham Palace wearing her going-away Hartnell ensemble and the seal of royal approval was reflected in increased business for Hartnell. For the 1937 Coronation of King George VI, his consort Queen Elizabeth ordered the maid of honour dresses from Hartnell, remaining loyal to Handley-Seymour for her Coronation gown. Until 1939 Hartnell received most of the Queen's orders and after 1946, with the exception of some country clothes, she remained a Hartnell client, even after his death. Hartnell's ability in adapting current fashion to a personal royal style began with slimmer fitted designs for day and evening wear. The new Queen was short and her new clothes gave her height and distinction, public day-clothes usually consisted of a long or three-quarter length coat over a slim skirt, often embellished by fur trimmings or some detail around the neck. His designs for the Queen's evening wear varied from unembellished slim dresses, which in the fashion of the day formed a background to the jewellery worn. Some evening wear was embroidered with sequins and glass. There was a complete change of style apparent in designs for the grander evening occasions, when Hartnell re-introduced the crinoline to world fashion, after the King showed Hartnell the Winterhalter portraits in the Royal Collection. King George suggested that the style favoured earlier by Queen Victoria would enhance her presence. It also came to symbolise the continuing values of the established British monarchy worldwide, after the debacle of the Abdication Crisis, when the uncrowned Edward VIII wanted to marry a twice-divorced American, Wallis Simpson. Having failed to gain the support of the British government, and that of the Dominions, he left for exile and marriage abroad. Mrs Simpson, subsequently the Duchess of Windsor, was also a London Hartnell client, later patronizing Mainbocher who made her wedding dress. Main Bocher was a friend of Hartnell's with whom the latter credited with sound early advice, when he showed his 1929 summer collection in Paris. Then a Vogue editor, Bocher told Hartnell that he had seldom seen so many wonderful dresses so badly made. Hartnell took his advice and employed the talented Parisian 'Mamselle' Davide, reputedly the highest paid member of any London couture house, and other talented cutters, fitters and tailors to execute his designs to the highest international couture standards by the 1930s. In 1929 Hartnell showed his clothes to the international press in Paris and the floor-length hems of his evening dresses, after a decade of rising hems, were hailed as the advent of a new fashion, copied throughout the world as evidenced by the press of the time. His clothes were so popular with the press that he opened a House in Paris in order to participate in Parisian Collection showings. Within a decade, Hartnell again effectively changed the fashionable evening dress silhouette, when more of the crinoline dresses worn by the Queen during the State Visit to Paris in July 1938 also created a worldwide sensation viewed in the press and on news-reels. The death of the Queen's mother Cecilia Bowes-Lyon, wife of the Earl of Strathmore, before the visit resulted in court mourning and a short delay in the dates of the visit to a vital British Ally, of enormous political significance at a time when Germany was threatening war in Europe. Royal Mourning dictated black, and shades of mauve, which meant that all the clothes utilising colour for the planned June Visit had to be re-made and Hartnell's work-rooms worked long hours to create a new wardrobe in white, which Hartnell remembered had a precedent in British Royal Mourning and was not unknown for a younger Queen. The designs featured some lavish use of detail, such as the courtesy shown to France with a day dress of yards of Valenciennes lace, day ensembles trimmed with white fox and the magnificent satin crinoline dress, the ruched decoration highlighted by camellias, worn for a Gala at the Opera and seen to effect on Garnier's impressive staircase. Hartnell was decorated by the French government and his friend Christian Dior, creator of the full-skirted post-war New Look, was not immune to the influence and romance of the look. He publicly stated that whenever he thought of beautiful clothes, it was of those created by Hartnell for the 1938 State Visit, which he viewed as a young aspirant in the fashion world. The crinoline fashion for evening wear influenced fashion internationally and French designers were not slow to take up the influence of the Scottish-born Queen and the many kilted Scots soldiers in Paris for the State Visit; day clothes featuring plaids or tartans were evident in the next seasons collections of many Parisian designers. The Queen commanded another extensive wardrobe by Hartnell for The Royal Tour of Canada and Visit to North America during May and June 1939. At a critical time in world history, the Visit cemented North American ties of friendship in the months before the outbreak of World War II in September 1939. The King and Queen were received with enormous acclaim by great crowds throughout the Tour and Visit and the dignity and charm of the Queen were undoubtedly aided by her Hartnell wardrobe. Hitler termed Queen Elizabeth “the most dangerous woman in Europe” on viewing film footage of the successful Tour. The aura of majesty encapsulated by the Queen during the last two years of peace is poignantly captured by Cecil Beaton's 1939 photographs at Buckingham Palace in which she wears some of the Hartnell dresses made in 1938 and 1939. In 1940 Norman Hartnell received a Royal Warrant in 1940 as Dressmaker to the Queen By 1939, largely due to Hartnell's success, London was known as an innovative fashion centre and was often first visited by American buyers, before they travelled on to Paris. Hartnell had already had substantial American sales to various shops and copyists, a lucrative source of income to all designers. Some French designers, such as Anglo-Irish Edward Molyneux and Elsa Schiaparelli opened London Houses, which had a glittering social life centred around the Court. Young British designers opened their own successful Houses, such as Victor Stiebel and Digby Morton, formerly at Lachasse where Hardy Amies was the acclaimed designer after 1935. Peter Russell also opened his own House and all attracted younger smart women. Older more staid generations still patronised the older London Houses of Handley-Seymour, Reville and the British owned London concessions of House of Worth and Paquin. Before Hartnell established himself, the only British designer with a worldwide reputation for originality in design and finish was Lucile, whose London house closed in 1924. Then as now, the younger members of the British Royal Family attracted worldwide publicity. Whilst it was a triumph for Hartnell to have gained the impressive figure of Queen Mary as a client wearing his most shimmering sequin encrusted designs off-set by fabulous jewels, the four young wives of her four sons created fashion news - even if Mrs Simpson was a worrying distraction. Princess Marina, was a notable figure and a patron of Edward Molyneux in Paris. He designed her 1934 wedding dress and the bridesmaids dresses for her marriage to Queen Mary's fourth son Prince George, Duke of Kent and when Molyneux opened his London salon, also designed by Lacoste, she became a steady client of his until he closed the business in 1950. Thereafter, she was often a Hartnell client.
Grand Designs Abroad - References - Netflix